In December 2019, after the coronavirus was discovered, the genetic sequence for COVID-19 was released on January 11, 2020, prompting urgent international responses to get ready for the outbreak and accelerate the development of a preventive vaccine.
In February 2020, high rates of COVID-19 infection worldwide in the early 2020s spurred international alliances and government efforts to urgently allocate resources to create multiple vaccines in a shorter time frame, with four vaccine candidates being submitted for human evaluation.
In April 2020, the World Health Organization estimated the total cost of developing a batch of three or more vaccines with diverse technologies and distributions at $ 8 billion. By April 2020, about eighty companies and institutions in nineteen countries were operating in this hypothetical gold rush.
In July 2020, the intelligence of Anglo-American and security organizations engaged governments and the military, such as the United Kingdom’s National Cyber Security Center, as well as the Canadian Communications Security Corporation, the US Department of Homeland Security, the Cybersecurity Infrastructure Security Agency, and the United States, issued an NSA statement. (NSA) that state-backed Russian hacker may be trying to steal COVID-19 cure research and vaccines from academic and pharmaceutical institutions in other countries, but Russia denied this assumption.
Throughout 2020, the main changes in public efforts to develop COVID-19 vaccines since the beginning of the year have increased collaboration between the national government and the multinational pharmaceutical industry. The increase in the number of biotech companies and diversity in many countries specializing in the COVID-19 vaccine. According to CEPI, the overall geographic distribution of COVID-19 vaccine development includes organizations in North America that conduct about 40 percent of COVID-19 vaccine research globally, compared to 30 percent in Asia and Australia, 26 percent in Europe and several projects in Africa and South America.
The COVID-19 vaccine aims to deliver acquired immunity against COVID-19. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, work on developing a vaccine against coronavirus diseases provided MERS and SARS knowledge of the structure and function of coronaviruses, leading to accelerated development of various technical platforms for the COVID-19 vaccine in early 2020.
Fifty-seven vaccines were in a clinical trial by mid-December 20202, including forty in phase I and II trials and seventeen in phase II and III trials. In Phase 3 trials, several COVID-19 vaccines are up to 95 percent effective in preventing symptomatic COVID-19 infections. National regulatory authorities have approved five vaccines for general use: Gam-COVID-Vac from the Gamaleya Research Institute, mRNA-1273 from Moderna, CoronaVac from Sinovac, tozinameran from Pfizer–BioNTech, and BBIBP-CorV from Sinopharm.
In 2021, AstraZeneca, Pfizer, and Moderna predict a production capacity of 5.3 billion doses that could be used to vaccinate about 3 billion people (since vaccines require two doses to prevent COVID-19). By December, countries had ordered more than 10 billion doses of vaccine in advance, with about half of the doses purchased by countries with high-income, which account for only 14 percent of the world population. Many countries have implemented phasing plans that prioritize those most at complications risk, for instance, the elderly, and those at high risk of transmission and infection and exposure, like those of health workers.
About ten percent of the population considers vaccines unnecessary or unsafe and refuses to vaccinate – a global health risk called vaccination frequency – which raises the risk of spreading the virus, leading to a COVID-19 outbreak. In mid-2020, two polls estimate that 67 percent or 80 percent of people in the United States would receive the new COVID-19 vaccine, with wide variations in employment status, geographic location, education level, race, and employment status.
A poll by Morning Consult and National Geographic showed a gender gap in the pursuit of the COVID-19 vaccine in the United States: 51 percent of women and 69 percent of men surveyed said they would be vaccinated. The survey also showed a positive relationship between educational attainment and the desire for the vaccine.